Regarding Universal Movements for Artificial Intelligence

Universality

In the history of humankind, diversities in terms of regions, languages, ideas on the world and problem solutions have caused rise of different communities. Although we are living over the same planet, differences have been always a real fact and caused many problems for the humankind. Because of faced difficulties and diversities in terms of understanding each other common ideas and regulations have been tried to be established over the world (-those have been focused on not violating anybody’s rights or at least sharing the same purpose of living in peace). By eliminating the observed world and passing to an abstract plane, philosophical perspectives have shaped the humankind’s way of understanding the world. As the history faced with many alternative views in this manner, Analytic Philosophy has been trying to give meaning by considering that: philosophical problems can be solved thanks to a general analysis regarding their terms, and via direct systematic logical evaluation’ [1, 2]. That idea includes careful analyze of target problem by defining its terms first and establishing logical relations with i.e. meanings [3, 4]. Some of well-known faces of that sub-field of the Philosophy are Bertrand Russell, G. E. Moore, Gottlob Frege, and Ludwig Wittgenstein [5, 6].

Analytic Philosophy is itself a deep knowledge pool that should be studied in the context of Philosophy. However, as a remarkable topic of that sub-field, I would like to consider the concept of universality. Universality can be defined as ‘the idea expressing that universal facts exist and the one can discovery all of them progressively’ [7-9]. According to the universality, the reality is a whole and so that its information should exist as a whole, which means acceptance by everybody [8-10]. By moving from that universality has become an essential component for eliminating disadvantages of diversities over the world. At least, the universality has come out of an abstract meaning and become real in terms of certain applications as well as written rules around the world.

When we analyze the universality in detail, it can be seen that it is associated with critical concepts still we are dealing with [10-14]:

  • Ethical and moral issues,
  • Law and legal rights,
  • Decision-making,
  • Metaphysics.

As all of the mentioned concepts are abstract for even human-being, I think technological compatibility maybe re-thought for a better future. At this point, Artificial Intelligence is a remarkable actor to be evaluated in terms of universal movements.

Universal Move for Future: Should It Be Applied to Artificial Intelligence?

A wide formulation associated with the Universal Artificial Intelligence has already been done remarkably before; with AIXI, which is rising over a model of reinforcement learning agent (of Artificial General Intelligence) taking place in a stochastic, unknown (but computable) environment [15, 16]. Although it is a critical perspective, which should be analyzed deeply, I will rather discuss possible universal movements for Artificial Intelligence. Maybe AIXI will be a logically effective solution for universality of Artificial Intelligence but the discussion maybe done over communities and living standars of people.

It is important that current use of intelligent systems is generally related to narrow solutions over known samples from the past. The most widely discussed learning style of intelligent systems is reinforcement learning since it’s related to experiences. However, as long as we know which feedback to give for certain actions for shaping decision-making flow of an intelligent system, it seems to be have pre-formulated way of reinforcement learning process. That seems making sense but when we consider infinite number of environmental conditions affecting an event to occur, the chaos says us that it is not possible to predict future movements of every intelligent systems with individual experiences conflicting each other whether it is another intelligent system. When we make that wider as covering the world with its all components, the level of impossibility rises expotentially. Furthermore, abstract occurances as human products should be formulated mathematically and logically by eliminating any conflicts caused wide diversity of humankind along the history. Defined as ‘social characteristics, norms / knowledge associated with a group of people, as connected to social habits, language, religion, art…etc.’ [17-19], the concept of culture may be re-designed in order to make universal moves for making intelligent systems world-wide accepted and understood components of the real life. Not only culture, but also ethics, morality are all abstract, difficult-to-model components causing traps in the way of future Artificial Intelligence. 

When we think about a sustainable future of Artificial Intelligence, the following universal moves -I think- should be realized, for meeting with universality and rapid influence of a common world:

  • Creation of universal cultural components compatible with intelligent systems but also not in conflict with cultural differences; rather covering them as a new layer with multi-complex-connections like a i.e. digital culture.
  • Not allowing intelligent systems to deep into ethical evaluations but rather, performing solution-makings over such wide-open issues with the support by humans, who will be more creative and out-of work stress thanks to computerized jobs in the future.
  • Keeping intelligent systems away dangerous uses (i.e. developing autonomous weapons) and achieving a world-wide peace.
  • In order to ensure the world-wide peace mentioned above (I hope), achieving the solutions of universal income, open-borders for better people interaction and eliminating economical problems of every nation over the world.
  • Modeling a universal, collaborative swarm logic giving universal values / orders for all intelligent systems with autonomous abilities world-wide.
  • Appear of future jobs (associated with computational tools, digital world…etc.) world-wide at the same time, at the same salary level, targeting all human-being.
  • Ensuring strong optimization infrastructure for all intelligent systems to make themselves adaptable for every different natural environments around the world.
  • Making intelligent systems not only human-compatible but also universe-compatible as associated with understanding the reasons of humans, animals, planets, stars, dark matter…etc.
  • Transforming communities into intelligent-system-compatible as giving necessary training / education regarding future technologica, ethical uses of technologies, future characteristics of intelligent systems; through at least 3-generation.
  • Establishing world-wide organizations (like NATO or UN) for universal policy making of future Artificial Intelligence.

All the mentioned futuristic ideas of mine may be extended, and maybe even some of them can be found impossible but that’s not harmful to derive some ideas and give some insights for the future. We will all see what the future of intelligent systems will be like: utopia, or distopia(?).

References

[1] Rockmore, T. (2005). Hegel, idealism, and analytic philosophy. Yale University Press.

[2] Hanna, R. (2001). Kant and the foundations of analytic philosophy. Clarendon Press.

[3] Martinich, A., & Sosa, D. (Eds.). (2001). A companion to analytic philosophy. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

[4] Preston, A. (2007). Analytic philosophy: The history of an illusion. Bloomsbury Publishing.

[5] Biletzki, A., & Matar, A. (Eds.). (2002). The story of analytic philosophy: Plot and heroes. Routledge.

[6] Reck, E. H. (Ed.). (2001). From Frege to Wittgenstein: Perspectives on Early Analytic Philosophy. Oxford University Press.

[7] Wilson, R. (2007). Subjective universality in Kant’s aesthetics. Peter Lang.

[8] Bonnett, A. (2005). Anti-racism. Routledge.

[9] Potter, N. T., & Timmons, M. (Eds.). (2012). Morality and universality: Essays on ethical universalizability (Vol. 45). Springer Science & Business Media.

[10] Wikipedia. (2020). Universality. Online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universality_(philosophy) [Accessed 23 June 2020].

[11] Pin-Fat, V. (2009). Universality, ethics and international relations: A grammatical reading. Routledge.

[12] Žukauskaite, A. (2011). Ethics between particularity and universality. Deleuze and ethics, 188-206.

[13] Simma, B. (2009). Universality of International Law from the Perspective of a Practitioner. European Journal of International Law20(2), 265-297.

[14] Williamson, T. (2013). Modal logic as metaphysics. Oxford University Press.

[15] Hutter, M. (2004). Universal artificial intelligence: Sequential decisions based on algorithmic probability. Springer Science & Business Media.

[16] Leike, J. (2015). What is AIXI? — An Introduction to General Reinforcement Learning. Online: https://jan.leike.name/AIXI.html [Accessed 23 June 2020].

[17] Zimmermann, K. A. (2017). What is culture? Live Science. Online: https://www.livescience.com/21478-what-is-culture-definition-of-culture.html [Accessed 23 June 2020].

[18] Wikipedia. (2020). Culture. Online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture [Accessed 23 June 2020].

[19] Culture, P. (1982). New York, JP Putnam’s Sons. TODOROV Tzvetan.

 

(Attention: The content of this article belongs completely to Dr. Utku KÖSE; so unauthorized use and copying will have legal consequences.)

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